Landscape of Palestine

Palestine is a region that lies between the banks of the Jordan. Its territory extends from the south of the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqabah. Palestinian neighborhood triangular. The head and tail head south to the north. The southern part of Palestine met by the end of the Gulf of Aqabah while extending from the northern part of the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean. Palestinian territories are on the western end of the Asian continent. The astronomical, stretched on the line 15 ° –34 ° and 40 ° –35 ° east longitude, and extends 30 ° –29 ° and 15 ° –33 ° north latitude.
Palestinian borders with Lebanon in the middle of the sea (the Mediterranean sea). Precisely in near the small town in Lebanon, the city of Berit Jubael. The dividing line between the Palestinians and Lebanese turn to the north at an angle almost straight. Borders are on the lips of Jordan river springs that part of Palestine. In the eastern part, the Palestinian borders with Syria and Lake Al-Hola, Lout and Tabarriyya. From Jordan, the Palestinian territories split the middle of the southern Dead Sea geometrically and valleys araba, until he came to aqaba bay. The starting of the Rafah border, the Mediterranean, to Taba at bay Aqaba.Di western Palestine International bordering open waters of the Mediterranean Sea at a distance of approximately 250 km2 to Rafah in the south.
Palestine’s location is in the center of the Arab countries have a combination of geographic Palestine made of natural and humanistic. Palestinian land to be special in comparison to other regions as a bridge commercial activity and the military incursions throughout history. The strategic location of Palestine is also a factor connecting the continents, namely Asia, Africa, and Europe (Hermawati: 38).
Palestinian areas
1. Coastal
Coastal areas of Palestine extends from Ra’s An-NAqurah to Rafah. Palestinian coastal almost flat, there are no ports that can dilabuhi ship. Important cities and ports located on the coast of Palestine, among others: Gaza, Jaffa, and Aka. Palestinian coastal bridge connecting the Asian continent with the African continent and track the most popular fighter in history.
Gaza coastline
2. Local Mountains
This area consists of hills and small mountain ranges with some internal plains. This area is sometimes seen as the land of Palestine spine, and stretches from the south to the farthest point in the southern Naqab desert.
The height of this region does not exceed 1,000 meters. The ground gradually down toward the flat areas in the West and continue towards the East, to arrive at the Jordan Valley with the tongues of mountain and rock cadasnya high. The valleys have been dug in the hills in the direction of calcite from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Jordan River in the east. Most of these valleys are dry or seasonal and flood with water after rain.
This mountainous area can be divided into two parts: Al Jaleel and the middle mountain chain.
(A) Al-Jaleel. Palestinian expansion of Al Jaleel is often considered an extension of the Al Jaleel is in Lebanon, also known as the mass Amel mountain. Height of land in Al Jaleel increased gradually and reached its height in the North region in Al-Jaleel Al-A’ala. And the lowest level in the South in the plain of Marj Ibn Amer. Al-Jaleel block down sharply into the Jordan Valley in the highest point and the mid point down toward the East. Nevertheless, it drops gradually toward the plain of Akka in the West. Al Jaleel area estimated to be about 2,083 km2. Al-Jaleel can be divided into the following sub-divisions:
Al-Jaleel, Falasteen
(I) Al-Jaleel Al-A’ala (highest) consists of a high mountain with a length of 40 km from east to west. Its width is 25 km from north to south. Mount Jarmaq regarded as the highest of its chain with a height of 1,208 meters to the northwest of Safad, which is the highest peak in Palestine. Many valleys extend from Jarmaq toward the Northwest, Northeast and East. There’s more high mountains in Al-Jaleel such As’an mountain with a height of 936 m (in which the city is built Safat), Haydar Mountain 1,047 m [to the north of Al Ramah village] and Adathir mountain with an altitude of 1,006 m [ near the village Sa’sa’a]. At the time of geological bahela Mount Al-Jaleel Al-A’ala particularly vulnerable to large pressure and volcanic eruptions. These activities left points basaltic (a hard black rock from the eruption) in black on the surface of the mountain and a few cracks in the valleys to the Jordan Valley. Thus the land became barren and rocky.
(II) Al-Jaleel Al-Adna (lowest) to begin South of al-Jaleel Al-A’ala. Shagour valley separates them from each other. This was lower, with a height of no more than 200 m above sea level. It is also more fertile than the northern parts. Its length is about 50 from east to west and the width is more than 15 km from north to south. It is composed of parallel mountain chains extending from east to west, between broad valleys and plains. Among the mountains of the most important is Tabour or Tour (562 m) to the east of Nassira; Al Dahhi or Harmoun el Sageer (550 m) to the south Nassira; and Al-Nabi Sa’een (500 m), which is one of the peaks surrounding Al Nassira. The valleys of the most important is Al Fajjas valley and Al Beera; each ending at the Jordan River. One of the famous plains is Hitteen plain where the battle occurred Hitteen plain called War and Salah El Deen defeated the Crusaders. There is also a Battouf plains region where the Zionist state to build a dam to store water from the Jordan River and channeled through the canal. This area also experienced a depression in the ancient geological periods that eventually form the low-lying spots with black basaltic binting. Warm mineral springs out in the area near Tabarriyya Himma.
(III) Plain Marj bin Amer is a name derived from the descendants of Bani Amer from Bani Kalb that inhabit the area at the beginning of Islam into the city. It was called the “Marj” which means meadow because here is where tembuka easy overgrown where cattle roamed freely. These plains are formed as a result of the depression that happened a long time ago and formed a plateau which spans the distance broke the rocks in the earthquake. It is characterized by its flatness, though with some small and no sides with edges and steep cliffs that cut the hallways like a natural road plain to the surrounding area. And the most famous street is a street Majdou and Mukatta River valley ‘which connects with the Palestinian coastal plains and valleys that connect with Balghur Zar’een in Bysan. And from there to Damascus Irbit in the East and in the North, this plain also connect it with Central and Southern regions of Palestine. This plain separates Al Jaleel from Nablus and Al Karmel mountains. Its height is about 60-75 meters above sea level. Its length is about 40 km from West to East, and the width is about 19 km from north to south. Its area is estimated around 351 km2. In the middle, in Al Afouleh, the ground began to slightly decline towards the east to the Jordan Valley, where the Valley Jalout located and the water flows into the Jordan River. The soil also decreased westward to the plains of Akka, the place where the river Mukatta ‘flows up to the Gulf of Akka. The soil is mostly mud that is very suitable for growing grain, and this place is one of the most fertile land in Palestine. Therefore, the Zionists settled in advance after the British mandate.
(IV) The cluster of the Central Range: The cluster of high datarang runs between Marj bin Amer in the North and Beer El Sabe areas in the South. Its area, including Mount Carmel, about 529 km2 consisting of high hills where there are some flat land enclosed and surrounded by mountains. Its surface is irregular and vary between a flat region with the tough mountain terrain. Dry valleys that descend towards the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the Jordan Valley to the east managed to cut the plateau and into deep calcite formations. And this plateau is sticking with the place where the flow of water (cliff) that rock and the edges are steep in the Valley Low Jordan of which is Mount Al Kabeer, Ras Um El Kharouba, Um Halal, QRN Sartaba, Al Qrantal, Rasl El Fashkha , Turba Ras, Ras El Marsad, Khashem Asdoum and many others bordering the Dead Sea. The hill plateau or decline gradually toward the West where it will meet with hills in the East in the plains Beach. We can divide the middle heights into two groups: Mount Nablus in the north and the mountains of Jerusalem and Hebron to the south.
Nablus mountains stretch to the southeast to reach Karmel Mountain, which ends in the Mediterranean Sea. It stretches towards the south to the valleys of Dayer Bailout, which is the highest flow for Aooja river flowing to the north of Jaffa.
It is worth noting that the Nablus mountains are inseparable from the Al Quds, each bent and formed a united chain. The length of the Nablus mountains is estimated at about 65 km from north to south with a width of about 55 km from West to East.
Ebal mountains (940 m) is the highest peak in this chain and is comparable to the mountains Jarzeem (881 m). The city of Nablus is built on two mountains, and building the buildings cover the valley between the two mountains. There are still other mountains, such as Mount Faqou’a and Jabloun mountain to Northeast Janeen, the Aqra ‘mountain, the mountain BaYazeed, mountain Bilal and others. In these mountains there are some flat areas such as the plains of Araba (30,000 hectares), the plain Sanour (Marj El Garaq) with an area of ​​20,000 hectares, Makhna plains, which stretches along the eastern Ebal and Jarzeem.
Among the valleys of the most important in the Nablus mountains down to the east to the Jordan River are the valley Al Baden, Al Farei’a and Al Maleh. The valleys heading west to the Mediterranean Sea, there is only one important one and that is the Valley River flows through Aouja and ended up in the north of Jaffa.
The hills of Jerusalem and Al Jaleel stretches from the middle of Nablus and Jerusalem (village Beiteen) in the north towards Beer El Sabe ‘in the South with a distance of approximately 90 km. The mound is located halfway between the Lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea to the East and Southern coastal plains to the west. With the breadth is from 40 to 50 km, including parts opposite the Dead Sea and the rocks where the water flow in the West that leads to the coastal plains.
The mound is basically composed of calcite, which makes good building materials, particularly in the area of ​​Jerusalem. With the passage of time, this plateau experienced many changes that led to the melting of calcite formations. Owing to the influence of rainfall and floods that occurred in the dry valleys. This mountain was cut into the hills and mountain chains, coupled with the formation of caves and rocks.
The mountains that surround the plateau is formed by two hills were unanimous on the mountain wide elevated and horizontally to form two arcs, one of which is called the Bow Al Khaleel-Bayt Lahm, and the other is called the Bow of Jerusalem-Ramallah. These two arcs separated by the gate relatively low in the Jerusalem area. The mound is also experiencing breakage at the edges and in particular on the down slop in the East to the level altitudes with a water flow of rock-rock in the Dead Sea.
Bab El Wad
To waterfalls in the West, fell slowly toward the coastal plain and ends in the shape of the hills into the depths of the flat beach. These highlands are clearly divided by the influence of dry and seasonal valleys such as the Valley Ali (Bab El Wad), Loire Valley Al Sarrar and Al Khaleel. Here are the most important valleys that descend toward the East: Al Aouja and Loire Valley Al Qalt, both ending at the Jordan River. And the Nar Valley and Zwueera, both ending at the Dead Sea.
The mountains are the most important in Jerusalem are Tal El Asour (1,016 m), Al-Nabi Samuel (885 m), Al Ma (819 m), Al Tour or Al Zaytoun (826 m) and Al Makbar (795 m). The mountains are important in Hebron Khalet Batrikh (1,020 m), Halhoul (1,013 m), Su’eer (1,018 m), Bani Na’eem (951 m) and Doura (838 m). The mountainous region stretches approximately 24 km to the south Hebron, close to sizzle Dhahirrya, where the desert hills of Palestine began.
3. The area of ​​the Jordan Valley
Valley region stretches over the eastern part of Palestine from the mountains Sheikh in the north to the Gulf of Aqaba in the South. The eastern part of this long region enters the Jordanian borders, while its western side enters the Palestinian lands.
The length of the Jordan Valley is more than 240 km, and this is a subdivision of a larger system which consists of a group of entrenched successive valleys. This is a small part of the Africa-Asia system that extends to a distance of 6,000 km from latitude 20 South toward Mozambigue to 45 northern latitudes in Turkey with consists of latitude 65 degrees, for example, one-fifth of the earth’s surface.
The Jordan Valley is among depression earth invite the attention of the world. That’s because the Dead Sea that were there, which is the lowest point on the surface of the sea around the globe. The Jordan Valley stems from mountain Sheikh, up approximately 160 m above sea level. Not too long then began to descend toward the South, where it reaches a height of about 70 m in Lake Al Hawla (before), and to the sea level in Banat Ya’qoub bridge over the Jordan River to Lake Tabarriyya. Then down to below sea level in the lake Tabarriyya approximately 212 m.
Therefore, he reached the lowest point below sea when it gets to the Dead Sea which ranges from 398 m below sea level. Deepest ocean point from the bottom of the Dead Sea is approximately 797 m below sea level. So the height of the land began to rise when it leads to the south is the Dead Sea, where the altitude reaches 240 m above sea level. Ajram area is the dividing line between the Dead Sea water to the north and the Red Sea (Gulf of Aqaba) in the south. Height of land in the Araba valley starts to go down to the south of Al Ajram as it approached the Gulf of Aqaba.
The Jordan Valley was formed out of the depression and the breakup of the rocks that led to its collapse to the depths we are witnessing now. It was connected to the sea for a while and then separate it as the marine formations that make up the levels from underneath. In the days of rain, part of the Jordan Valley was covered by water which is better known as the Ancient Jordan Lake, which stretches from Lake Tabarriyya in the South up to approximately 30 km to the South of the Dead Sea today. This lake disappeared thousands of years ago in prehistoric times, and nothing remains of it but the Tabarriyya Lake and the Dead Sea. We argumentasikan drought the lake from the remnants of the permeation of the lake to form Marn El Lisan. The River Jordan appeared and found its way into these formations.
Jordan Valley
We can distinguish between two levels of land in the Jordan Valley-that level of depth and level Zour. Depth (depression) is the higher of the two levels are formed from ancient marine precipitation and is mostly covered by a new layer of mud. And for Zour, a lower layer formed from the precipitation of the Jordan River. The height difference between depression and Zour is between 20 to 40 m. They are separated from the other by a group of hard soil and rock that is known locally as Al Katar. Jordan Valley varies in width from 5 km to the north of Aqaba to 35 km on the latitude Areha to the north of the Dead Sea.
From the border of two mountains, basic Valley down to the Jordan River is assumed as a natural dumping ground for the flow of water in the Jordan Valley. The valleys of the most important to come to the Jordan Valley from the heights of the mountains of Palestine leading to the Jordan River are the valley Hindaj, Amod, Al Beerah, Jaloud, Al Farei’a, Al-Maleha, Al-Aouja and Al-Qalt.
Valleys on the east of the Jordan River are Al Yarmouk, Al Arab, Zeqlab, Al Yabis, Kafernajja, Rajeb, Al cold compress, Al Zarqa, Shu’eeb, Al Kufreen and Hasban. Everything is either dry or seasonal, or permanent. Owing to the difference between the high-high valleys where it moves, and suddenly fell to the ground to reduce the burden of depression known as the flooding fans around the stream-flow near the legs of a high mountain.

4. Regional Bi’ru Palestinian Sabra and Sabana
This region occupies half the total area of ​​Palestine and is located in the southern part of Palestine. This area is like a triangle whose corners located in the bay Aqabah. Covers the area located between the ground of Gaza and Sinai peninsula and the islands east and south of the Dead Sea Jordan as his elbow. Bi’ru Sabra is the only city in the Palestinian territories inhabited by people Baduy and semi Baduy. The area is also an important trade penghubungn past world and the birthplace of the Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael. Kan’an Arab tribes ancestors.

Climate in Palestine
Palestinians climate is as diverse as its topography. Within a distance of about 160 km, from the Dead Sea to Mount Hermon, a height difference of contrasting produce climatic conditions similar to the climate in other places between latitudes to the equator and the North Pole latitude separated thousands of kilometers. Mount Hermon is usually snowcapped nearly all year round, while under near L. Dead thermometer sometimes reaches 50 ° C. The sea breeze blowing from the Mediterranean Sea to lower temperatures throughout the central mountains. As a result, the heat in Jerusalem rarely exceed 32 ° C, and there the temperature was never cold at all. In January the average temperature of about 10 ° C. In this area rarely snowing.
Rainfall in the country which is full of these differences are also very diverse. Along the coast of rainfall each year about 38 cm, but in places higher on Mount Carmel, in the central mountains, and the high ground east of the Jordan River rainfall doubled. By contrast, in the Negev, the Lower Jordan Valley, and the Dead Sea area are desert conditions, with rainfall between 5 to 10 cm per year.
Most rain fell in the months of winter as December, January, and February; only 6 or 7 percent in the summer months from June to October. Rain “early,” or autumn rain, light in October and November make the land can be plowed (after hardened baking heat of the sun in the summer) in preparation for sowing of winter grains. Rain “end”, or the spring rain, fell in March and April.
One of the great assets of Palestine is abundant moisture, especially during the summer months that there is no rain, because no dew transcendent many vineyards and pastures will be very dry. Dew in Palestine mostly generated by rising damp winds from the Mediterranean and down from Mount Hermon. In some areas, there is so much dew during the night so that plants can obtain sufficient water instead of water lost due to heat during the day. Dew particularly important in the Negev and the highlands of Gilead for very little rainfall.
Flora and Fauna in Palestine
Varieties of trees, shrubs, and plants which so many in a small area on this earth has aroused the admiration of botanists; one of whom estimates that there are about 2,600 varieties of plants growing in Palestine. The difference in altitude, climate and soil have led to a variety of flora; some suitable plants in alpine regions were cold, others in the hot desert, and some are suitable in alluvial plains or the rocky plateau, each flower and produce seed in season.

In places that are relatively close together there are palm trees which is a hot area of ​​plants and oak trees and pine trees plants that are cold regions; No willows along streams and tamarisk trees in the wilderness. Palestine is also famous for its vineyards, olive, and fig, and fields of wheat, barley, and sekoi. Other crop, including peas (peas), legumes, lentils, eggplant, onion, and cucumbers, as well as cotton and hemp.
In modern times, the people who visit this country often disappointed except in the spring, when the area outside the city was filled with the sights blooming flowers. Most of the year, the mountain slopes are rocky barren and arid.
In the past, in Palestine like the park there are more animals, birds, and water creatures compared to today. Lions, bears, wild bull, and hippopotamus is no longer there, but other wildlife can still be found, among others, wolves, wild boar, wild cats, wild dog (jackal), hare and fox. Domesticated animals there are a lot of sheep, goats, cows, horses, donkeys, and camels. It is estimated that there are about 85 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, and 75 species of reptiles.
The ground wealth
In addition to proven as a country that a lot of water and can produce food that is abundant, mountains in Palestine containing iron ores and copper are useful. Gold, silver, tin, and lead had to be imported, but there are plenty of supplies of salt, and in the Jordan Valley are layers of clay for bricks and pottery industry. Also very nice limestone excavated for use in construction, and in some parts of the ground level there is a black basalt highly valuable by being hard and smooth texture.
Palestine is not a fertile region with abundant natural results. The Palestinian territories, is important not because of the natural wealth, but rather to its strategic position. Location of the Palestinian territories that connects three continents, namely Europe, Asia and Africa. As well as connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea. Palestinian territories is also bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Which means, connecting the Arab countries in the Asian continent with countries in Africa (Hermawati: 105).

Astronomy layout Palestine is located in 150LU-320LU and between 340BT-570BT, layout Geography of Palestine is Palestine lies in the western part of the Asian continent meridian between latitudes 15-34 and 40-35 to the east, and between latitude meridian 30- 29 and 15-33 to the north Palestinian borders with Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan in the east, and Egypt on the south side.

Palestinian climate fluctuates (immutable) between the Mediterranean climate and desert climate. It is caused by the influence of the sea and the desert. Ocean climate is more dominant, although at certain times it was influenced by the desert climate.
Topographically, the expanse of the land of Palestine consisting of: 1) the lowlands (al-manthiqat al-sahiliyah), 2) plateau (al-manthiqat al-jabaliyat, manthiqat al-murtafa’at al-Wustha), 3) Jordan basin area (manthiqat al-ukhdud al-urduni), and 4) area of ​​the Negev (al-Naqab hadhbat). (ASPAC)


Hermawati. History of Religion and the Jewish people, Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada 2005

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